Biochemistry Important Questions – MBBS 1st Year [Question Bank]

In this post, I’ll be listing down important Biochemistry topics (chapter-wise) for first year MBBS medical students. 

You can bookmark this page for a quicker revisit. Go through this question bank after completing the respective chapters.


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Click here to check out MCI recommended books for MBBS 1st Year.


Cell, Cellular Organelles and Membrane Transport

  • With a neat and labelled diagram, describe the structure and functions of the organelles present in a typical mammalian cell.
  • With a neat and labelled diagram, describe the structure of the plasma membrane/cell membrane (Fluid Mosaic Model). List down important functions.*
  • Mitochondria – structure and important functions.
  • Endoplasmic reticulum – types and important functions.
  • Lysosome – important functions. Mention the marker enzymes. Give examples for lysosomal storage diseases.*
  • Passive transport – Diffusion and Facilitated transport.*
  • Active transport – Primary and Secondary.*
  • Endocytosis and Exocytosis.

Carbohydrate Chemistry

  • Classification of carbohydrates with suitable examples.*
  • Monosaccharides.
  • What are Mucopolysaccharides? Mention Describe their biomedical importance with suitable examples.*
  • Compare and contrast the structural differences between starch and glycogen.*
  • Epimerism and anomerism.
  • Mutarotation.
  • Why is sucrose a non-reducing sugar?
  • Composition of sucrose, maltose and lactose.

Lipid Chemistry 

  • Classification of lipids with suitable examples.*
  • Essential fatty acids – definition, examples and important functions.*
  • Prostaglandins.
  • Phospholipids – definition, types and functions.*
  • Rancidity and lipid peroxidation.
  • Lung surfactant and Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
  • Cholesterol ‐ structure and biological importance. 

Protein Chemistry

  • Classification of amino acids based on nutritional requirement with suitable examples.
  • Classification of amino acids based on chemical structure with suitable examples.
  • Structural organisation of proteins (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure).*
  • Bonds involved in stabilizing the structure of proteins.*
  • Classification of proteins based on their biological function.
  • Biologically important peptides (biological importance of peptides).
  • Essential amino acids.*
  • Isoelectric pH and isoelectric precipitation of proteins.
  • Denaturation of proteins and agents causing denaturation.*
  • Glutathione.*

Nucleic acid Chemistry 

  • Watson and Crick model of DNA.*
  • Structure and function of DNA.
  • Different types of RNA and their functions.*
  • Difference between RNA and DNA.*
  • Structure and function of mRNA.
  • Structure and function of tRNA.*
  • Base pairing rule and Wobble hypothesis.

Enzymes

  • What are enzymes? Classify enzymes according to the IUBMB system with suitable examples.*
  • Factors affecting enzymatic activity – enzyme concentration, pH, temperature and substrate concentration.*
  • Km (Michaelis ‐Menton constant) with significance.
  • Enzyme inhibition – competitive, non competitive and uncompetitive.*
  • Clinical importance of competitive enzyme inhibition.
  • Suicide inhibition.
  • Multienzyme complex.
  • Isoenzymes – definition, characteristics and clinical significance.*
  • Diagnostic enzymes – examples and clinical significance.*
  • Cardiac markers for myocardial infarction.
  • Hepato-biliary markers.
  • Therapeutic markers.

Metabolism and homeostasis

  • Metabolic changes during starvation.*
  • Metabolic changes during fed condition (absorptive state).
  • Hormonal regulation of blood glucose level.*
  • Diabetes Mellitus – types, metabolic changes, complications.*
  • Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus.*
  • Glucose tolerance test.*
  • Glycated haemoglobin.*

Carbohydrate Metabolism

  • Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates.
  • Glucose transporters.*
  • Lactose intolerance.
  • Glycolysis – significance, site, reactions, energetics, regulation and inhibitors.*
  • Rapoport Luebering cycle with significance.*
  • Lactic acidosis.
  • Citric acid cycle (TCA cycle) – significance, site, reactions, energetics, regulation, amphibolic role, anaplerotic reactions.*
  • Gluconeogenesis.*
  • Cori’s cycle.
  • Glycogenesis and Glycogenolysis.*
  • Glycogen storage disorders (Glycogenosis).*
  • HMP shunt pathway.*
  • Uronic acid pathway.
  • Glucose‐6‐Phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.
  • Galactosemia.
  • Essential Fructosuria.
  • Hereditary fructose intolerance.

Lipid Metabolism

  • Digestion and absorption of lipids.*
  • Malabsorption syndrome.
  • Steatorrhea.
  • Beta oxidation of fatty acids.*
  • Lipid storage diseases (Sphingolipidoses).
  • Ketogenesis, ketolysis and ketosis.*
  • Synthesis of cholesterol. Add a note on its fate.
  • Synthesis and function of bile acids and bile salts.*
  • Lipoproteins – Chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, HDL.*
  • Hypercholesterolemia and associated disorders. Add a note on hypocholesterolemic agents.
  • Fatty liver – definition and causes.*
  • Lipotropic factors.

Protein and amino acid Metabolism

  • Digestion and absorption of proteins.
  • Amino acid pool.
  • Nitrogen balance.
  • Catabolism of amino acids.
  • Transamination.
  • Sources and fate of ammonia.
  • Urea cycle (Detoxification of ammonia).*
  • Glycine – specialised products and their importance.*
  • Phenylalanine and Tyrosine – metabolic pathway.*
  • Metabolism of tryptophan.*
  • Synthesis of catecholamines.
  • Polyamines ‐ examples and importance.
  • Phenylketonuria.*
  • Alkaptonuria.*
  • Albinism.
  • Homocystinuria.
  • Maple syrup urine disease.
  • Hartnup’s disease.
  • Carcinoid syndrome.

Nucleotide metabolism

  • Sources of atoms of Purine ring.*
  • Sources of atoms of Pyrimidine ring.*
  • Salvage pathways of Purine and Pyrimidine synthesis.
  • Catabolism of Purine nucleotides.*
  • Disorders of purine metabolism – Gout, Lesch Nyhan syndrome (etiology, clinical manifestations and biochemical basis).*

Biological Oxidation 

  • Electron transport chain – components and inhibitors.*
  • Oxidative phosphorylation – chemiosmotic hypothesis and inhibitors.*
  • Uncouplers.*
  • Brown adipose tissue.
  • Malate shuttle.
  • High energy compounds.

Plasma proteins

  • Plasma proteins – types, functions and clinical significance.*
  • Acute phase protein and clinical significance.
  • C reactive protein.
  • Multiple Myeloma.*
  • Bence Jones Protein.

Extracellular matrix

  • Collagen – composition, structure and function. *
  • Abnormalities in collagen structure – Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Ehler‐Danlos syndrome.*
  • Elastin.
  • Proteoglycans.*

Vitamins

  • Water and fat soluble vitamins.
  • RDA, Sources, Biochemical functions, Deficiency manifestations, Hypervitaminosis of Fat soluble vitamins – A*, D*, E, K.
  • RDA, Sources, Biochemical functions, Deficiency manifestations, Hypervitaminosis of Water soluble vitamins – Vitamin C*, Thiamine* (Vitamin B1), Riboflavin (Vitamin B2), Niacin (Vitamin B3), Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6), Biotin, Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5), Folic acid (Vitamin B9), Cobalamin (Vitamin B12).
  • Antivitamins.
  • Why does Vitamin E have sparing action on Selenium?
  • Beri beri.
  • Pellagra.

Minerals

  • Major elements and trace elements.
  • Sources, RDA, Absorption, Transport, Biological functions, Biological reference range, Disorders – Calcium*, Phosphorus, Iron*.
  • Calcium homeostasis (regulation of plasma calcium level).
  • Functions and disorders associated with ‐ Copper*, Zinc, Selenium*, Fluoride, Iodine, Magnesium*, Molybdenum.
  • Tetany.
  • Wilson’s disease.
  • Fluorosis.
  • Iron deficiency anemia.

Immunology 

  • Classification of immunoglobulins.*
  • Structure of immunoglobulin.*
  • Cellular and humoral immunity.
  • Role of T‐helper cells in immune responses.
  • Autoimmunity.
  • Types of vaccines and immunological basis of vaccine development.*

Nutrition

  • Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) – definition, normal value, factors affecting and significance.*
  • Specific Dynamic Action (SDA) – definition, normal value, and significance.*
  • Nitrogen balance.
  • Balanced diet – definition, composition.
  • Dietary fibers – definition, examples, significance.*
  • Calculation of calorie requirement.
  • Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) – Kwashiorkor and Marasmus.*
  • Complementary proteins.
  • Obesity.
  • Acid base balance 
  • Regulation of pH of blood by buffers, respiratory and renal mechanisms.*
  • Anion gap.*
  • Acidosis and alkalosis (metabolic and respiratory) – causes, compensatory mechanismsand lab findings.*

Water and electrolyte balance

  • Regulation of water and electrolyte balance.*
  • Renin angiotensin aldosterone mechanism.*
  • Disorders of electrolyte imbalance – causes and clinical features of Hyperkalemia*,
  • Hypokalemia, Hypernatremia, Hyponatremia.

Heme metabolism 

  • Heme synthesis.*
  • Porphyrias.*
  • Degradation of Heme (formation of Bilirubin).*
  • Jaundice – definition, classification, causes, lab diagnosis.*
  • Congenital hyperbilirubinemias – Crigler-Najjar syndrome, Dubin Johnson syndrome, Gilbert’s disease.
  • Hemoglobin – types, structure and function.
  • Abnormal hemoglobins.
  • Hemoglobinopathies – thalassemias and sickle cell anemia.

Molecular Biology

  • DNA replication ‐ prokaryotic and eukaryotic replication, requirements, process,
  • Inhibitors.
  • DNA polymerases.
  • Okazaki fragments.
  • Transcription –  Transcriptional units, promoter regions, RNA polymerases in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, process, inhibitors.*
  • Differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcription.
  • Post transcriptional modifications.*
  • Translation in Eukaryotes – process, inhibitors.*
  • Post translational modifications.*
  • Genetic code and its characteristics.*
  • Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes (Lac Operon concept).*
  • Regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes.

Molecular Biology Techniques

  • Recombinant DNA technology.*
  • DNA cloning ‐ process and application.
  • PCR – requirement, steps and application.*
  • Blotting techniques – southern blotting*, northern blotting, western blotting.
  • Vectors.*
  • Gene therapy.*
  • DNA Probes.*
  • RFPL.

Biochemistry of Cancer

  • DNA repair mechanisms.*
  • Xeroderma Pigmentosum.
  • Mutations – causes, types, consequences and examples.*
  • Mutagens and carcinogens.
  • Tumour markers and their importance in diagnosis and prognosis of cancer.*
  • Oncogenes.*
  • Proto Oncogenes and their activation.*
  • Tumour suppressor genes.
  • Oncogenic viruses.
  • Reverse transcriptase.*
  • Growth factors.

Organ function tests 

  • Liver Function Tests.*
  • Renal Function tests.*
  • Mechanism of action of Group I* and Group II hormones.
  • Thyroid function tests.*
  • Adrenal function tests.

Free Radicals and Antioxidants 

  • Free radicals.*
  • Reactive oxygen species (ROS).*
  • Damaging effects of ROS on biomolecules, lipid peroxidation.*
  • Anti‐oxidant defence system of our body – enzymes, vitamins, metabolites as antioxidants.

Xenobiotics and Detoxification 

  • Biotransformation.
  • Phase I reactions – Oxidation, Reduction, Hydroxylation.*
  • Cytochrome P450.
  • Phase II reactions – Conjugation.*

Clinical chemistry 

  • Automation ‐ advantages.*
  • Quality control.*
  • Biological reference intervals.*
  • Critical alerts.

If you’re facing trouble understanding and memorising Biochemistry, check out this article for some effective tips.


Good luck Medicoholics! Until next time.

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