In this post, I’ll be listing down important Biochemistry topics (chapter-wise) for first year MBBS medical students.
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Cell, Cellular Organelles and Membrane Transport
- With a neat and labelled diagram, describe the structure and functions of the organelles present in a typical mammalian cell.
- With a neat and labelled diagram, describe the structure of the plasma membrane/cell membrane (Fluid Mosaic Model). List down important functions.*
- Mitochondria – structure and important functions.
- Endoplasmic reticulum – types and important functions.
- Lysosome – important functions. Mention the marker enzymes. Give examples for lysosomal storage diseases.*
- Passive transport – Diffusion and Facilitated transport.*
- Active transport – Primary and Secondary.*
- Endocytosis and Exocytosis.
- Classification of carbohydrates with suitable examples.*
- What are Mucopolysaccharides? Mention Describe their biomedical importance with suitable examples.*
- Compare and contrast the structural differences between starch and glycogen.*
- Epimerism and anomerism.
- Why is sucrose a non-reducing sugar?
- Composition of sucrose, maltose and lactose.
- Classification of lipids with suitable examples.*
- Essential fatty acids – definition, examples and important functions.*
- Phospholipids – definition, types and functions.*
- Rancidity and lipid peroxidation.
- Lung surfactant and Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
- Cholesterol ‐ structure and biological importance.
- Classification of amino acids based on nutritional requirement with suitable examples.
- Classification of amino acids based on chemical structure with suitable examples.
- Structural organisation of proteins (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure).*
- Bonds involved in stabilizing the structure of proteins.*
- Classification of proteins based on their biological function.
- Biologically important peptides (biological importance of peptides).
- Essential amino acids.*
- Isoelectric pH and isoelectric precipitation of proteins.
- Denaturation of proteins and agents causing denaturation.*
Nucleic acid Chemistry
- Watson and Crick model of DNA.*
- Structure and function of DNA.
- Different types of RNA and their functions.*
- Difference between RNA and DNA.*
- Structure and function of mRNA.
- Structure and function of tRNA.*
- Base pairing rule and Wobble hypothesis.
- What are enzymes? Classify enzymes according to the IUBMB system with suitable examples.*
- Factors affecting enzymatic activity – enzyme concentration, pH, temperature and substrate concentration.*
- Km (Michaelis ‐Menton constant) with significance.
- Enzyme inhibition – competitive, non competitive and uncompetitive.*
- Clinical importance of competitive enzyme inhibition.
- Suicide inhibition.
- Multienzyme complex.
- Isoenzymes – definition, characteristics and clinical significance.*
- Diagnostic enzymes – examples and clinical significance.*
- Cardiac markers for myocardial infarction.
- Hepato-biliary markers.
- Therapeutic markers.
Metabolism and homeostasis
- Metabolic changes during starvation.*
- Metabolic changes during fed condition (absorptive state).
- Hormonal regulation of blood glucose level.*
- Diabetes Mellitus – types, metabolic changes, complications.*
- Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus.*
- Glucose tolerance test.*
- Glycated haemoglobin.*
- Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates.
- Glucose transporters.*
- Lactose intolerance.
- Glycolysis – significance, site, reactions, energetics, regulation and inhibitors.*
- Rapoport Luebering cycle with significance.*
- Lactic acidosis.
- Citric acid cycle (TCA cycle) – significance, site, reactions, energetics, regulation, amphibolic role, anaplerotic reactions.*
- Cori’s cycle.
- Glycogenesis and Glycogenolysis.*
- Glycogen storage disorders (Glycogenosis).*
- HMP shunt pathway.*
- Uronic acid pathway.
- Glucose‐6‐Phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.
- Essential Fructosuria.
- Hereditary fructose intolerance.
- Digestion and absorption of lipids.*
- Malabsorption syndrome.
- Beta oxidation of fatty acids.*
- Lipid storage diseases (Sphingolipidoses).
- Ketogenesis, ketolysis and ketosis.*
- Synthesis of cholesterol. Add a note on its fate.
- Synthesis and function of bile acids and bile salts.*
- Lipoproteins – Chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, HDL.*
- Hypercholesterolemia and associated disorders. Add a note on hypocholesterolemic agents.
- Fatty liver – definition and causes.*
- Lipotropic factors.
Protein and amino acid Metabolism
- Digestion and absorption of proteins.
- Amino acid pool.
- Nitrogen balance.
- Catabolism of amino acids.
- Sources and fate of ammonia.
- Urea cycle (Detoxification of ammonia).*
- Glycine – specialised products and their importance.*
- Phenylalanine and Tyrosine – metabolic pathway.*
- Metabolism of tryptophan.*
- Synthesis of catecholamines.
- Polyamines ‐ examples and importance.
- Maple syrup urine disease.
- Hartnup’s disease.
- Carcinoid syndrome.
- Sources of atoms of Purine ring.*
- Sources of atoms of Pyrimidine ring.*
- Salvage pathways of Purine and Pyrimidine synthesis.
- Catabolism of Purine nucleotides.*
- Disorders of purine metabolism – Gout, Lesch Nyhan syndrome (etiology, clinical manifestations and biochemical basis).*
- Electron transport chain – components and inhibitors.*
- Oxidative phosphorylation – chemiosmotic hypothesis and inhibitors.*
- Brown adipose tissue.
- Malate shuttle.
- High energy compounds.
- Plasma proteins – types, functions and clinical significance.*
- Acute phase protein and clinical significance.
- C reactive protein.
- Multiple Myeloma.*
- Bence Jones Protein.
- Collagen – composition, structure and function. *
- Abnormalities in collagen structure – Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Ehler‐Danlos syndrome.*
- Water and fat soluble vitamins.
- RDA, Sources, Biochemical functions, Deficiency manifestations, Hypervitaminosis of Fat soluble vitamins – A*, D*, E, K.
- RDA, Sources, Biochemical functions, Deficiency manifestations, Hypervitaminosis of Water soluble vitamins – Vitamin C*, Thiamine* (Vitamin B1), Riboflavin (Vitamin B2), Niacin (Vitamin B3), Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6), Biotin, Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5), Folic acid (Vitamin B9), Cobalamin (Vitamin B12).
- Why does Vitamin E have sparing action on Selenium?
- Beri beri.
- Major elements and trace elements.
- Sources, RDA, Absorption, Transport, Biological functions, Biological reference range, Disorders – Calcium*, Phosphorus, Iron*.
- Calcium homeostasis (regulation of plasma calcium level).
- Functions and disorders associated with ‐ Copper*, Zinc, Selenium*, Fluoride, Iodine, Magnesium*, Molybdenum.
- Wilson’s disease.
- Iron deficiency anemia.
- Classification of immunoglobulins.*
- Structure of immunoglobulin.*
- Cellular and humoral immunity.
- Role of T‐helper cells in immune responses.
- Types of vaccines and immunological basis of vaccine development.*
- Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) – definition, normal value, factors affecting and significance.*
- Specific Dynamic Action (SDA) – definition, normal value, and significance.*
- Nitrogen balance.
- Balanced diet – definition, composition.
- Dietary fibers – definition, examples, significance.*
- Calculation of calorie requirement.
- Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) – Kwashiorkor and Marasmus.*
- Complementary proteins.
- Acid base balance
- Regulation of pH of blood by buffers, respiratory and renal mechanisms.*
- Anion gap.*
- Acidosis and alkalosis (metabolic and respiratory) – causes, compensatory mechanismsand lab findings.*
Water and electrolyte balance
- Regulation of water and electrolyte balance.*
- Renin angiotensin aldosterone mechanism.*
- Disorders of electrolyte imbalance – causes and clinical features of Hyperkalemia*,
- Hypokalemia, Hypernatremia, Hyponatremia.
- Heme synthesis.*
- Degradation of Heme (formation of Bilirubin).*
- Jaundice – definition, classification, causes, lab diagnosis.*
- Congenital hyperbilirubinemias – Crigler-Najjar syndrome, Dubin Johnson syndrome, Gilbert’s disease.
- Hemoglobin – types, structure and function.
- Abnormal hemoglobins.
- Hemoglobinopathies – thalassemias and sickle cell anemia.
- DNA replication ‐ prokaryotic and eukaryotic replication, requirements, process,
- DNA polymerases.
- Okazaki fragments.
- Transcription – Transcriptional units, promoter regions, RNA polymerases in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, process, inhibitors.*
- Differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcription.
- Post transcriptional modifications.*
- Translation in Eukaryotes – process, inhibitors.*
- Post translational modifications.*
- Genetic code and its characteristics.*
- Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes (Lac Operon concept).*
- Regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes.
Molecular Biology Techniques
- Recombinant DNA technology.*
- DNA cloning ‐ process and application.
- PCR – requirement, steps and application.*
- Blotting techniques – southern blotting*, northern blotting, western blotting.
- Gene therapy.*
- DNA Probes.*
Biochemistry of Cancer
- DNA repair mechanisms.*
- Xeroderma Pigmentosum.
- Mutations – causes, types, consequences and examples.*
- Mutagens and carcinogens.
- Tumour markers and their importance in diagnosis and prognosis of cancer.*
- Proto Oncogenes and their activation.*
- Tumour suppressor genes.
- Oncogenic viruses.
- Reverse transcriptase.*
- Growth factors.
Organ function tests
- Liver Function Tests.*
- Renal Function tests.*
- Mechanism of action of Group I* and Group II hormones.
- Thyroid function tests.*
- Adrenal function tests.
Free Radicals and Antioxidants
- Free radicals.*
- Reactive oxygen species (ROS).*
- Damaging effects of ROS on biomolecules, lipid peroxidation.*
- Anti‐oxidant defence system of our body – enzymes, vitamins, metabolites as antioxidants.
Xenobiotics and Detoxification
- Phase I reactions – Oxidation, Reduction, Hydroxylation.*
- Cytochrome P450.
- Phase II reactions – Conjugation.*
- Automation ‐ advantages.*
- Quality control.*
- Biological reference intervals.*
- Critical alerts.
If you’re facing trouble understanding and memorising Biochemistry, check out this article for some effective tips.
Good luck Medicoholics! Until next time.