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Biochemistry Important Questions – MBBS 1st Year [Question Bank]

In this post, I’ll be listing down important Biochemistry topics (chapter-wise) for first year MBBS medical students. 

You can bookmark this page for a quicker revisit. Go through this question bank after completing the respective chapters.

There are dozens of Biochemistry Textbooks out there, making it difficult for medical students to decide which ones to purchase. To make it easier for you, I’ve handpicked BEST and MOST RECOMMENDED textbooks:

Click here to check out MCI recommended books for MBBS 1st Year.

Cell, Cellular Organelles and Membrane Transport

  • With a neat and labelled diagram, describe the structure and functions of the organelles present in a typical mammalian cell.
  • With a neat and labelled diagram, describe the structure of the plasma membrane/cell membrane (Fluid Mosaic Model). List down important functions.*
  • Mitochondria – structure and important functions.
  • Endoplasmic reticulum – types and important functions.
  • Lysosome – important functions. Mention the marker enzymes. Give examples for lysosomal storage diseases.*
  • Passive transport – Diffusion and Facilitated transport.*
  • Active transport – Primary and Secondary.*
  • Endocytosis and Exocytosis.

Carbohydrate Chemistry

  • Classification of carbohydrates with suitable examples.*
  • Monosaccharides.
  • What are Mucopolysaccharides? Mention Describe their biomedical importance with suitable examples.*
  • Compare and contrast the structural differences between starch and glycogen.*
  • Epimerism and anomerism.
  • Mutarotation.
  • Why is sucrose a non-reducing sugar?
  • Composition of sucrose, maltose and lactose.

Lipid Chemistry 

  • Classification of lipids with suitable examples.*
  • Essential fatty acids – definition, examples and important functions.*
  • Prostaglandins.
  • Phospholipids – definition, types and functions.*
  • Rancidity and lipid peroxidation.
  • Lung surfactant and Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
  • Cholesterol ‐ structure and biological importance. 

Protein Chemistry

  • Classification of amino acids based on nutritional requirement with suitable examples.
  • Classification of amino acids based on chemical structure with suitable examples.
  • Structural organisation of proteins (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure).*
  • Bonds involved in stabilizing the structure of proteins.*
  • Classification of proteins based on their biological function.
  • Biologically important peptides (biological importance of peptides).
  • Essential amino acids.*
  • Isoelectric pH and isoelectric precipitation of proteins.
  • Denaturation of proteins and agents causing denaturation.*
  • Glutathione.*

Nucleic acid Chemistry 

  • Watson and Crick model of DNA.*
  • Structure and function of DNA.
  • Different types of RNA and their functions.*
  • Difference between RNA and DNA.*
  • Structure and function of mRNA.
  • Structure and function of tRNA.*
  • Base pairing rule and Wobble hypothesis.


  • What are enzymes? Classify enzymes according to the IUBMB system with suitable examples.*
  • Factors affecting enzymatic activity – enzyme concentration, pH, temperature and substrate concentration.*
  • Km (Michaelis ‐Menton constant) with significance.
  • Enzyme inhibition – competitive, non competitive and uncompetitive.*
  • Clinical importance of competitive enzyme inhibition.
  • Suicide inhibition.
  • Multienzyme complex.
  • Isoenzymes – definition, characteristics and clinical significance.*
  • Diagnostic enzymes – examples and clinical significance.*
  • Cardiac markers for myocardial infarction.
  • Hepato-biliary markers.
  • Therapeutic markers.

Metabolism and homeostasis

  • Metabolic changes during starvation.*
  • Metabolic changes during fed condition (absorptive state).
  • Hormonal regulation of blood glucose level.*
  • Diabetes Mellitus – types, metabolic changes, complications.*
  • Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus.*
  • Glucose tolerance test.*
  • Glycated haemoglobin.*

Carbohydrate Metabolism

  • Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates.
  • Glucose transporters.*
  • Lactose intolerance.
  • Glycolysis – significance, site, reactions, energetics, regulation and inhibitors.*
  • Rapoport Luebering cycle with significance.*
  • Lactic acidosis.
  • Citric acid cycle (TCA cycle) – significance, site, reactions, energetics, regulation, amphibolic role, anaplerotic reactions.*
  • Gluconeogenesis.*
  • Cori’s cycle.
  • Glycogenesis and Glycogenolysis.*
  • Glycogen storage disorders (Glycogenosis).*
  • HMP shunt pathway.*
  • Uronic acid pathway.
  • Glucose‐6‐Phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.
  • Galactosemia.
  • Essential Fructosuria.
  • Hereditary fructose intolerance.

Lipid Metabolism

  • Digestion and absorption of lipids.*
  • Malabsorption syndrome.
  • Steatorrhea.
  • Beta oxidation of fatty acids.*
  • Lipid storage diseases (Sphingolipidoses).
  • Ketogenesis, ketolysis and ketosis.*
  • Synthesis of cholesterol. Add a note on its fate.
  • Synthesis and function of bile acids and bile salts.*
  • Lipoproteins – Chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, HDL.*
  • Hypercholesterolemia and associated disorders. Add a note on hypocholesterolemic agents.
  • Fatty liver – definition and causes.*
  • Lipotropic factors.

Protein and amino acid Metabolism

  • Digestion and absorption of proteins.
  • Amino acid pool.
  • Nitrogen balance.
  • Catabolism of amino acids.
  • Transamination.
  • Sources and fate of ammonia.
  • Urea cycle (Detoxification of ammonia).*
  • Glycine – specialised products and their importance.*
  • Phenylalanine and Tyrosine – metabolic pathway.*
  • Metabolism of tryptophan.*
  • Synthesis of catecholamines.
  • Polyamines ‐ examples and importance.
  • Phenylketonuria.*
  • Alkaptonuria.*
  • Albinism.
  • Homocystinuria.
  • Maple syrup urine disease.
  • Hartnup’s disease.
  • Carcinoid syndrome.

Nucleotide metabolism

  • Sources of atoms of Purine ring.*
  • Sources of atoms of Pyrimidine ring.*
  • Salvage pathways of Purine and Pyrimidine synthesis.
  • Catabolism of Purine nucleotides.*
  • Disorders of purine metabolism – Gout, Lesch Nyhan syndrome (etiology, clinical manifestations and biochemical basis).*

Biological Oxidation 

  • Electron transport chain – components and inhibitors.*
  • Oxidative phosphorylation – chemiosmotic hypothesis and inhibitors.*
  • Uncouplers.*
  • Brown adipose tissue.
  • Malate shuttle.
  • High energy compounds.

Plasma proteins

  • Plasma proteins – types, functions and clinical significance.*
  • Acute phase protein and clinical significance.
  • C reactive protein.
  • Multiple Myeloma.*
  • Bence Jones Protein.

Extracellular matrix

  • Collagen – composition, structure and function. *
  • Abnormalities in collagen structure – Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Ehler‐Danlos syndrome.*
  • Elastin.
  • Proteoglycans.*


  • Water and fat soluble vitamins.
  • RDA, Sources, Biochemical functions, Deficiency manifestations, Hypervitaminosis of Fat soluble vitamins – A*, D*, E, K.
  • RDA, Sources, Biochemical functions, Deficiency manifestations, Hypervitaminosis of Water soluble vitamins – Vitamin C*, Thiamine* (Vitamin B1), Riboflavin (Vitamin B2), Niacin (Vitamin B3), Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6), Biotin, Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5), Folic acid (Vitamin B9), Cobalamin (Vitamin B12).
  • Antivitamins.
  • Why does Vitamin E have sparing action on Selenium?
  • Beri beri.
  • Pellagra.


  • Major elements and trace elements.
  • Sources, RDA, Absorption, Transport, Biological functions, Biological reference range, Disorders – Calcium*, Phosphorus, Iron*.
  • Calcium homeostasis (regulation of plasma calcium level).
  • Functions and disorders associated with ‐ Copper*, Zinc, Selenium*, Fluoride, Iodine, Magnesium*, Molybdenum.
  • Tetany.
  • Wilson’s disease.
  • Fluorosis.
  • Iron deficiency anemia.


  • Classification of immunoglobulins.*
  • Structure of immunoglobulin.*
  • Cellular and humoral immunity.
  • Role of T‐helper cells in immune responses.
  • Autoimmunity.
  • Types of vaccines and immunological basis of vaccine development.*


  • Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) – definition, normal value, factors affecting and significance.*
  • Specific Dynamic Action (SDA) – definition, normal value, and significance.*
  • Nitrogen balance.
  • Balanced diet – definition, composition.
  • Dietary fibers – definition, examples, significance.*
  • Calculation of calorie requirement.
  • Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) – Kwashiorkor and Marasmus.*
  • Complementary proteins.
  • Obesity.
  • Acid base balance 
  • Regulation of pH of blood by buffers, respiratory and renal mechanisms.*
  • Anion gap.*
  • Acidosis and alkalosis (metabolic and respiratory) – causes, compensatory mechanismsand lab findings.*

Water and electrolyte balance

  • Regulation of water and electrolyte balance.*
  • Renin angiotensin aldosterone mechanism.*
  • Disorders of electrolyte imbalance – causes and clinical features of Hyperkalemia*,
  • Hypokalemia, Hypernatremia, Hyponatremia.

Heme metabolism 

  • Heme synthesis.*
  • Porphyrias.*
  • Degradation of Heme (formation of Bilirubin).*
  • Jaundice – definition, classification, causes, lab diagnosis.*
  • Congenital hyperbilirubinemias – Crigler-Najjar syndrome, Dubin Johnson syndrome, Gilbert’s disease.
  • Hemoglobin – types, structure and function.
  • Abnormal hemoglobins.
  • Hemoglobinopathies – thalassemias and sickle cell anemia.

Molecular Biology

  • DNA replication ‐ prokaryotic and eukaryotic replication, requirements, process,
  • Inhibitors.
  • DNA polymerases.
  • Okazaki fragments.
  • Transcription –  Transcriptional units, promoter regions, RNA polymerases in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, process, inhibitors.*
  • Differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcription.
  • Post transcriptional modifications.*
  • Translation in Eukaryotes – process, inhibitors.*
  • Post translational modifications.*
  • Genetic code and its characteristics.*
  • Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes (Lac Operon concept).*
  • Regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes.

Molecular Biology Techniques

  • Recombinant DNA technology.*
  • DNA cloning ‐ process and application.
  • PCR – requirement, steps and application.*
  • Blotting techniques – southern blotting*, northern blotting, western blotting.
  • Vectors.*
  • Gene therapy.*
  • DNA Probes.*
  • RFPL.

Biochemistry of Cancer

  • DNA repair mechanisms.*
  • Xeroderma Pigmentosum.
  • Mutations – causes, types, consequences and examples.*
  • Mutagens and carcinogens.
  • Tumour markers and their importance in diagnosis and prognosis of cancer.*
  • Oncogenes.*
  • Proto Oncogenes and their activation.*
  • Tumour suppressor genes.
  • Oncogenic viruses.
  • Reverse transcriptase.*
  • Growth factors.

Organ function tests 

  • Liver Function Tests.*
  • Renal Function tests.*
  • Mechanism of action of Group I* and Group II hormones.
  • Thyroid function tests.*
  • Adrenal function tests.

Free Radicals and Antioxidants 

  • Free radicals.*
  • Reactive oxygen species (ROS).*
  • Damaging effects of ROS on biomolecules, lipid peroxidation.*
  • Anti‐oxidant defence system of our body – enzymes, vitamins, metabolites as antioxidants.

Xenobiotics and Detoxification 

  • Biotransformation.
  • Phase I reactions – Oxidation, Reduction, Hydroxylation.*
  • Cytochrome P450.
  • Phase II reactions – Conjugation.*

Clinical chemistry 

  • Automation ‐ advantages.*
  • Quality control.*
  • Biological reference intervals.*
  • Critical alerts.

If you’re facing trouble understanding and memorising Biochemistry, check out this article for some effective tips.

Good luck Medicoholics! Until next time.

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