Here is a list of important Biochemistry questions for first-year MBBS students. Students can make use of this question bank for the preparation of the subject. For your convenience, the questions have been arranged in a chapter-wise format.
As you complete each chapter in Biochemistry, refer to the following list of important questions. You can bookmark this page for a quicker revisit.
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The questions have been divided into the following chapters:
- Cell, Cellular Organelles and Membrane Transport
- Carbohydrate Chemistry
- Lipid Chemistry
- Protein Chemistry
- Nucleic acid Chemistry
- Metabolism and homeostasis
- Carbohydrate Metabolism
- Lipid Metabolism
- Protein and amino acid Metabolism
- Nucleotide metabolism
- Biological Oxidation
- Plasma proteins
- Extracellular matrix
- Water and electrolyte balance
- Heme metabolism
- Molecular Biology
- Molecular Biology Techniques
- Biochemistry of Cancer
- Organ function tests
- Free Radicals and Antioxidants
- Xenobiotics and Detoxification
- Clinical chemistry
A star ★ indicates that the question is extremely important, so these should be the first ones to concentrate on.
Cell, Cellular Organelles and Membrane Transport
- With a neat and labelled diagram, describe the structure and functions of the organelles present in a typical mammalian cell.
- With a neat and labelled diagram, describe the structure of the plasma membrane/cell membrane (Fluid Mosaic Model). List down important functions. ★
- Mitochondria – structure and important functions.
- Endoplasmic reticulum – types and important functions.
- Lysosome – important functions. Mention the marker enzymes. Give examples for lysosomal storage diseases. ★
- Passive transport – Diffusion and Facilitated transport. ★
- Active transport – Primary and Secondary. ★
- Endocytosis and Exocytosis.
- Classification of carbohydrates with suitable examples. ★
- What are Mucopolysaccharides? Mention Describe their biomedical importance with suitable examples. ★
- Compare and contrast the structural differences between starch and glycogen. ★
- Epimerism and anomerism.
- Why is sucrose a non-reducing sugar?
- Composition of sucrose, maltose and lactose.
- Classification of lipids with suitable examples. ★
- Essential fatty acids – definition, examples and important functions. ★
- Phospholipids – definition, types and functions. ★
- Rancidity and lipid peroxidation.
- Lung surfactant and Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
- Cholesterol ‐ structure and biological importance.
- Classification of amino acids based on nutritional requirement with suitable examples.
- Classification of amino acids based on chemical structure with suitable examples.
- Structural organisation of proteins (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure). ★
- Bonds involved in stabilizing the structure of proteins. ★
- Classification of proteins based on their biological function.
- Biologically important peptides (biological importance of peptides).
- Essential amino acids. ★
- Isoelectric pH and isoelectric precipitation of proteins.
- Denaturation of proteins and agents causing denaturation. ★
- Glutathione. ★
Nucleic acid Chemistry
- Watson and Crick model of DNA. ★
- Structure and function of DNA.
- Different types of RNA and their functions. ★
- Difference between RNA and DNA. ★
- Structure and function of mRNA.
- Structure and function of tRNA. ★
- Base pairing rule and Wobble hypothesis.
- What are enzymes? Classify enzymes according to the IUBMB system with suitable examples. ★
- Factors affecting enzymatic activity – enzyme concentration, pH, temperature and substrate concentration. ★
- Km (Michaelis ‐Menton constant) with significance.
- Enzyme inhibition – competitive, non competitive and uncompetitive. ★
- Clinical importance of competitive enzyme inhibition.
- Suicide inhibition.
- Multienzyme complex.
- Isoenzymes – definition, characteristics and clinical significance. ★
- Diagnostic enzymes – examples and clinical significance. ★
- Cardiac markers for myocardial infarction.
- Hepato-biliary markers.
- Therapeutic markers.
Metabolism and homeostasis
- Metabolic changes during starvation. ★
- Metabolic changes during fed condition (absorptive state).
- Hormonal regulation of blood glucose level. ★
- Diabetes Mellitus – types, metabolic changes, complications. ★
- Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus. ★
- Glucose tolerance test. ★
- Glycated haemoglobin. ★
- Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates.
- Glucose transporters. ★
- Lactose intolerance.
- Glycolysis – significance, site, reactions, energetics, regulation and inhibitors. ★
- Rapoport Luebering cycle with significance. ★
- Lactic acidosis.
- Citric acid cycle (TCA cycle) – significance, site, reactions, energetics, regulation, amphibolic role, anaplerotic reactions. ★
- Gluconeogenesis. ★
- Cori’s cycle.
- Glycogenesis and Glycogenolysis. ★
- Glycogen storage disorders (Glycogenosis). ★
- HMP shunt pathway. ★
- Uronic acid pathway.
- Glucose‐6‐Phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.
- Essential Fructosuria.
- Hereditary fructose intolerance.
- Digestion and absorption of lipids. ★
- Malabsorption syndrome.
- Beta oxidation of fatty acids. ★
- Lipid storage diseases (Sphingolipidoses).
- Ketogenesis, ketolysis and ketosis. ★
- Synthesis of cholesterol. Add a note on its fate.
- Synthesis and function of bile acids and bile salts. ★
- Lipoproteins – Chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, HDL. ★
- Hypercholesterolemia and associated disorders. Add a note on hypocholesterolemic agents.
- Fatty liver – definition and causes. ★
- Lipotropic factors.
Protein and amino acid Metabolism
- Digestion and absorption of proteins.
- Amino acid pool.
- Nitrogen balance.
- Catabolism of amino acids.
- Sources and fate of ammonia.
- Urea cycle (Detoxification of ammonia). ★
- Glycine – specialised products and their importance. ★
- Phenylalanine and Tyrosine – metabolic pathway. ★
- Metabolism of tryptophan. ★
- Synthesis of catecholamines.
- Polyamines ‐ examples and importance.
- Phenylketonuria. ★
- Alkaptonuria. ★
- Maple syrup urine disease.
- Hartnup’s disease.
- Carcinoid syndrome.
- Sources of atoms of Purine ring. ★
- Sources of atoms of Pyrimidine ring. ★
- Salvage pathways of Purine and Pyrimidine synthesis.
- Catabolism of Purine nucleotides. ★
- Disorders of purine metabolism – Gout, Lesch Nyhan syndrome (etiology, clinical manifestations and biochemical basis). ★
- Electron transport chain – components and inhibitors. ★
- Oxidative phosphorylation – chemiosmotic hypothesis and inhibitors. ★
- Uncouplers. ★
- Brown adipose tissue.
- Malate shuttle.
- High energy compounds.
- Plasma proteins – types, functions and clinical significance. ★
- Acute phase protein and clinical significance.
- C reactive protein.
- Multiple Myeloma. ★
- Bence Jones Protein.
- Collagen – composition, structure and function. ★
- Abnormalities in collagen structure – Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Ehler‐Danlos syndrome. ★
- Proteoglycans. ★
- Water and fat soluble vitamins.
- RDA, Sources, Biochemical functions, Deficiency manifestations, Hypervitaminosis of Fat soluble vitamins – A ★, D ★, E, K.
- RDA, Sources, Biochemical functions, Deficiency manifestations, Hypervitaminosis of Water soluble vitamins – Vitamin C ★, Thiamine (Vitamin B1) ★, Riboflavin (Vitamin B2), Niacin (Vitamin B3), Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6), Biotin, Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5), Folic acid (Vitamin B9), Cobalamin (Vitamin B12).
- Why does Vitamin E have sparing action on Selenium?
- Beri beri.
- Major elements and trace elements.
- Sources, RDA, Absorption, Transport, Biological functions, Biological reference range, Disorders – Calcium ★, Phosphorus, Iron ★.
- Calcium homeostasis (regulation of plasma calcium level).
- Functions and disorders associated with ‐ Copper ★, Zinc, Selenium ★, Fluoride, Iodine, Magnesium ★, Molybdenum.
- Wilson’s disease.
- Iron deficiency anemia.
- Classification of immunoglobulins. ★
- Structure of immunoglobulin. ★
- Cellular and humoral immunity.
- Role of T‐helper cells in immune responses.
- Types of vaccines and immunological basis of vaccine development. ★
- Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) – definition, normal value, factors affecting and significance. ★
- Specific Dynamic Action (SDA) – definition, normal value, and significance. ★
- Nitrogen balance.
- Balanced diet – definition, composition.
- Dietary fibers – definition, examples, significance. ★
- Calculation of calorie requirement.
- Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) – Kwashiorkor and Marasmus. ★
- Complementary proteins.
- Acid base balance.
- Regulation of pH of blood by buffers, respiratory and renal mechanisms. ★
- Anion gap. ★
- Acidosis and alkalosis (metabolic and respiratory) – causes, compensatory mechanismsand lab findings. ★
Water and electrolyte balance
- Regulation of water and electrolyte balance. ★
- Renin angiotensin aldosterone mechanism. ★
- Disorders of electrolyte imbalance – causes and clinical features of Hyperkalemia ★, Hypokalemia, Hypernatremia, Hyponatremia.
- Heme synthesis. ★
- Porphyrias. ★
- Degradation of Heme (formation of Bilirubin). ★
- Jaundice – definition, classification, causes, lab diagnosis. ★
- Congenital hyperbilirubinemias – Crigler-Najjar syndrome, Dubin Johnson syndrome, Gilbert’s disease.
- Hemoglobin – types, structure and function.
- Abnormal hemoglobins.
- Hemoglobinopathies – thalassemias and sickle cell anemia.
- DNA replication ‐ prokaryotic and eukaryotic replication, requirements, process, inhibitors.
- DNA polymerases.
- Okazaki fragments.
- Transcription – Transcriptional units, promoter regions, RNA polymerases in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, process, inhibitors. ★
- Differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcription.
- Post transcriptional modifications. ★
- Translation in Eukaryotes – process, inhibitors. ★
- Post translational modifications. ★
- Genetic code and its characteristics. ★
- Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes (Lac Operon concept). ★
- Regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes.
Molecular Biology Techniques
- Recombinant DNA technology. ★
- DNA cloning ‐ process and application.
- PCR – requirement, steps and application. ★
- Blotting techniques – southern blotting ★, northern blotting, western blotting.
- Vectors. ★
- Gene therapy. ★
- DNA Probes. ★
Biochemistry of Cancer
- DNA repair mechanisms. ★
- Xeroderma Pigmentosum.
- Mutations – causes, types, consequences and examples. ★
- Mutagens and carcinogens.
- Tumour markers and their importance in diagnosis and prognosis of cancer. ★
- Oncogenes. ★
- Proto Oncogenes and their activation. ★
- Tumour suppressor genes.
- Oncogenic viruses.
- Reverse transcriptase. ★
- Growth factors.
Organ function tests
- Liver Function Tests. ★
- Renal Function tests. ★
- Mechanism of action of Group I ★ and Group II hormones.
- Thyroid function tests. ★
- Adrenal function tests.
Free Radicals and Antioxidants
- Free radicals. ★
- Reactive oxygen species (ROS). ★
- Damaging effects of ROS on biomolecules, lipid peroxidation. ★
- Anti‐oxidant defence system of our body – enzymes, vitamins, metabolites as antioxidants.
Xenobiotics and Detoxification
- Phase I reactions – Oxidation, Reduction, Hydroxylation. ★
- Cytochrome P450.
- Phase II reactions – Conjugation. ★
- Automation ‐ advantages. ★
- Quality control. ★
- Biological reference intervals. ★
- Critical alerts.
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Good luck Medicoholics! Until next time.
This is really so helpful especially for MBChB students. It’s got much information to be able to help a student pass the exams.
I’m glad that helped!