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Model Question Papers For MBBS 1st Year [Sample]

In this post, you can refer to model question papers which have been designed as per the new CBME curriculum (according to the latest syllabus and question paper pattern) for 1st year MBBS course.

Also read: Best Books for MBBS First Year (MCI Recommended List)


Long Essays (2 × 10 = 20 marks)

  • Describe the knee joint under the following headings:
    Bones forming
    Movements with muscles causing them and their nerve supply
    Applied aspects (1+3+3+1+2)
  • Describe the stomach under the following headings:
    Blood supply
    Lymphatic drainage
    Applied aspects (1+1+3+2+2+1)

Short Essays (10 x 5 = 50 marks)

  • Explain the course, relations and distribution of the common peroneal nerve. At which site is the nerve commonly injured and why? Explain the anatomical basis of the clinical features observed as a result of such an injury. (3+1+1)
  • Describe the mechanism, location and applied importance of porta-caval anastomosis. (1+2+2)
  • Describe the gross anatomy and applied importance of the vermiform appendix. (3.5+1.5)
  • Explain the protective mechanisms of the inguinal canal that prevent the occurrence of inguinal hernia.
  • Describe the lobes, relations and applied anatomy of the prostate gland. (2+2+1)
  • Describe the boundaries, contents and applied aspects of the ischiorectal fossa. (2+2+1)
  • Describe the supports of the uterus and their applied importance. (4+1)
  • What is Down syndrome? Explain the genetic mechanism underlying it. (2+3)
  • Correlate the structure and function of the juxta-glomerular apparatus.
  • Explain the mechanism of midgut rotation during development and its consequences.

Short Answers (10 x 3 = 30 marks)

  • What is Trendelenburg gait? Explain its anatomical basis. (2+1)
  • A man sustained severe trauma to the lower chest wall on the left side in a road traffic accident. He was taken to the emergency department where he was found to have a fracture of the 9th and 10th ribs and a ruptured spleen. Explain the probable mechanism by which splenic rupture might have occurred.
  • Name the attachments and contents of the lesser omentum. (1.5+1.5)
  • Name the attachments and contents of the broad ligament of the uterus. (1.5+1.5)
  • Describe briefly the gross anatomy of the perineal body and its applied importance. (2+1)
  • Draw a typical pedigree chart showing sex-linked recessive inheritance.
  • Draw a neat, labelled diagram (high-power view) of a haematoxylin and eosin stained section of a pancreatic acini.
  • Compare and contrast the histology of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum.
  • Enumerate the derivatives of the paramesonephric duct.
  • Enumerate the derivatives of the 2nd pharyngeal arch.


Long Essays (2 x 10 = 20 marks)

  • Describe the femoral triangle under the following headings:
    Add a note on femoral sheath and its applied aspects. (3+4+3)
  • A young male patient came to the emergency with a history of severe abdominal pain in the right iliac fossa. On examination tenderness at McBurney’ s point was noted.
    What is McBurney’s point?
    Name the organ involved
    Describe its positions, peritoneal fold and blood supply
    Explain the anatomical basis for tenderness at McBurney’s point. (1+1+6+2)

Short Essays (10 x 5 = 50 marks)

  • Describe the origin, course, branches and distribution of Obturator nerve. (1+2+2)
  • Describe the boundaries of hepatorenal pouch and give its clinical significance. (3+2)
  • Describe the peritoneal folds and visceral relations of spleen. Explain the embryological basis of notched superior border of spleen. (2+2+1)
  • Describe the attachments, actions, nerve supply and modifications of external oblique abdominis muscle. (2+1+1+1)
  • Describe the prostate under the following – parts and coverings, structures opening in the posterior wall of prostatic urethra, give the clinical significance of venous drainage. (2+2+1)
  • Describe the origin, course, branches of the Internal pudendal artery. Add a note on its surgical importance. (1+1+2+1)
  • Describe the Articulating surfaces, Ligaments, Applied aspect of Sacroiliac joint. (2+2+1)
  • Describe the principles of genetic counselling.
  • Compare and contrast the structure and function of rods and cones.
  • Describe the development of uterus and explain the embryological basis of septate uterus. (3+2)

Short Answers (10 x 3 = 30 marks)

  • Mention any 3 factors maintaining the medial and lateral longitudinal arches of foot.
  • Enumerate the structures passing through sacral hiatus.
  • Explain the clinical importance of arterial arcades of jejunum and ileum.
  • Name the muscles attached to the perineal body and give its clinical importance. (2+1)
  • Draw a neat labelled diagram of interior of anal canal and add a note on clinical significance of pectinate line. (2+1)
  • Draw a pedigree chart of X linked inheritance with example.
  • Compare and contrast the mucosa of the fundus and pyloric part of the stomach.
  • Describe the structure and functional significance of portal acinus.
  • Explain the embryological basis of nerve supply of the tongue.
  • Explain the embryological basis of Fallot ‘s tetralogy.


Long Essays (2 x 10 = 20 marks)

  • Define Cardiac output and mention its normal value. Explain the factors regulating Cardiac output. (2+8)
  • Describe the mechanism of concentration of urine. Explain the role of hormones in producing concentrated urine. (7+3)

Short Essays (10 x 5 = 50 marks)

  • Kwashiorkor causes retention of fluid in the arms, lower limbs and face leading to a swollen appearance. Identify the sign and define (2) Analyze the cause for retention of fluid (3)
  • A 30 year old males came with a history of severe burning sensation and pain in the abdomen associated with nausea and vomiting since 1 week. History revealed that the pain was relieved after intake of food. Personal history revealed that he was a chronic smoker and alcoholic. What is probable diagnosis (1) Describe the mechanism of HCl secretion (3) Explain the basis for use of proton pump inhibitor in the treatment of above condition (1)
  • Define compliance. State its normal value. Name conditions where lung compliance is altered.(1+1+3)
  • Explain with a graph the segments of the left ventricle pressure volume loop.
  • Explain the transport of oxygen in arterial blood.
  • Explain the Intrinsic mechanism of coagulation.
  • Explain the physiological basis of oxygen therapy in different hypoxias. What are the side effects of 100% oxygen administration? (3+2)
  • Explain the long term mechanism of regulation of blood pressure.
  • Describe the movements of the small intestine.
  • Explain the mechanism of Humoral immunity. List the types of immunoglobulins with their functions. (2+3)

Short Answers (10 x 3 = 30 marks)

  • Explain how apoptosis is a natural process with the help of one example.
  • Explain the role of plasmin in lysis of blood clot.
  • How does AV nodal blocks appear on ECG?
  • Explain the effect of gravity on the ventilation perfusion ratio.
  • Explain why glycosuria is seen at plasma glucose concentration of 180 mg%.
  • Account for the elevated levels of serum Amylase in acute pancreatitis.
  • Describe the structure of glomerular filtration membrane.
  • Enumerate clinical features of hypovolemic shock.
  • Describe the different components of blood that are used in blood transfusion.
  • What constitutes Dead space? What are its types?


Long Essays (2 x 10 = 20 marks)

  • Trace the pain pathway. Classify the types of pain. Explain the gate control theory. (5+3+2)
  • A 26 year married lady menstruating regularly missed her menstrual cycle. The Urine Gravindex test was positive.
    What is the physiological basis of this test (2)
    What physiological changes would occur in the different systems? (5)
    Mention the methods by which she can plan her family in future (3)

Short Essays (10 x 5 = 50 marks)

  • A 73 year old man’s wife notices that her husband is not making any sense when he talks and does not seem to understand simple commands. Analyze the site of lesion (2 marks) Design a flowchart for the pathway of spoken speech. (3 marks)
  • Describe the mechanism of action of insulin. Explain its regulation. (3+2)
  • Describe the connections of Basal ganglia. Explain its functions. (2+3)
  • Provide experimental evidence for operant conditioning.
  • Explain the transmission of impulse across the neuromuscular junction.
  • Explain the mechanisms by which the receptor quantity and sensitivity are regulated.
  • Account for all the causes of short stature.
  • Describe the role of hypothalamus in the control of food and water intake. (3+2)
  • Describe the uterine and ovarian changes during menstrual cycle. (3+2)
  • Explain the visual reflexes.

Short Answers (10 x 3 = 30 marks)

  • Enumerate differences between Excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potential.
  • Describe the role of ACTH in the regulation of glucocorticoids.
  • Explain all mechanisms by which generation of a nerve action potential can be blocked.
  • Describe features of Wallerian degeneration with the help of a diagram.
  • List criteria to diagnose metabolic syndrome.
  • Enumerate the functions of pineal gland.
  • Explain the different waves of EEG.
  • Account for the pain and loss of hearing in a person having common cold during rapid descent in an airplane.
  • Explain the tests to detect latent tetany.
  • Enumerate the functions of the limbic system.


Long Essays (2 x 10 = 20 marks)

  • A 57 year old man was brought to the emergency with a history of 12 hours shortness of breath, coughing and tightness in the chest region. The symptoms appeared suddenly. His past medical history is significant for diabetes mellitus and hypertension. He is a known smoker and alcoholic. At the time of admission his B.P was 180/100 mm of Hg. The laboratory tests showed CKMB as 45 IU/L (Reference range 5-25 IU/L).
    Suggest the probable diagnosis? (1)
    Define isoenzymes. (1)
    Discuss different isoenzyme forms of any two relevant enzyme along with their characteristics, and clinical significance (8)
  • Discuss Vitamin B12 with respect to the following:
    Dietary sources and RDA. (2)
    How is it absorbed from the intestine? (2)
    Biochemical role as coenzyme (2)
    Deficiency manifestations and their biochemical basis (3)
    Why do vegans develop Vitamin B12 deficiency? (1)

Short Essays (10 x 5 = 50 marks)

  • What are Phospholipids? Mention the composition and function of any four of lipids. (1+4)
  • Mention the reference range of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C). Justify the role of HDL-C as scavenger of cholesterol illustrating the metabolic pathway. (1+4)
  • Define oxidative phosphorylation.. Explain the Chemiosmotic theory of oxidative phosphorylation with a suitable diagram. (1+4)
  • A 25 year old type 1 Diabetic patient presented with hypertension, dry mucous membrane and poor skin turgor. On examination the patient was tachypneic and his breath had fruity odour. His blood investigations showed
    RBS – 550mg/dL
    pH- 7.25
    pCO2 – 38 mmHg
    HCO3 – 16 mEq/L
    Suggest the acid base disorder (1)
    Explain the causes, biochemical abnormalities and compensatory mechanisms in this acid base disorder. (2)
    What is anion gap and how do you relate anion gap in this case. (2)
  • A 12 year old girl came with h/o of distension of abdomen and complained of frequent episodes of weakness, sweating and pallor that subsided on eating. O/E significant findings showed hepatomegaly. Blood examination revealed:
    Fasting Plasma Glucose – 40mg/dL
    Triglycerides – Increased
    Lactic acid – Increased
    Uric acid – Increased
    Ketone bodies – Increased
    Suggest the probable diagnosis (0.5)
    Name the deficient enzyme in this case (0.5)
    Outline the reactions of the affected pathway in this case (2)
    Analyze the reason for increased lactic acid and uric acid levels in this case. (2)
  • Mention the reference range of serum calcium. Explain the regulation of blood calcium level. (1+4)
  • Compare and contrast Marasmus and Kwashiorkor.
  • Explain the anapleurotic reactions of TCA cycle. (5)
  • Explain the synthesis of ketone bodies. Justify the role of ketone bodies as alternate sources of energy. (3+2)
  • Discuss Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT) under the following headings: Indications, contraindications, procedure and interpretation of oral GTT. (1+1+1+2)

Short Answers (10 x 3 = 30 marks)

  • Draw a neat labelled diagram of Mitochondria and Name any two mitochondrial disorders. (2+1)
  • Enumerate the six components of ECM.
  • Explain the protein sparing action of carbohydrates in the body.
  • Mention the Biological Reference Range in the serum for the following analytes:
  • List any 3 functions each of copper and zinc.
  • Discuss the relationship between Vitamin E and selenium.
  • Digoxin, a cardio tonic drug, inhibits which transport pump in the membranes. Explain the mechanism of this pump.
  • Mention the role of lipases involved in the digestion of lipids.
  • Define osmolality. Mention the reference range of plasma osmolality.
  • Mention the therapeutic significance of competitive inhibition citing three examples.


Long Essays (2 x 10 = 20 marks)

  • A 14 year old male presented with one week history of episodic severe abdominal pain associated with vomiting 3 to 4 times a day and dark reddish urine. In the past, he had 2 episodes of similar abdominal pain along with altered sensorium and generalized epileptic for which he was on treatment. General physical examination and neurological and abdominal examination was unremarkable. Laboratory investigations showed hemoglobin of 11 gm% and urine was strongly positive for porphobilinogen. Peripheral smear showed microcytic hypochromic anemia.
    Suggest the probable diagnosis?
    What is the biochemical basis for the above-mentioned laboratory findings.
    Explain the pathway implicated in this condition (1+3+6)
  • Explain any five liver function tests with their clinical interpretation.

Short Essays (10 x 5= 50 marks)

  • Classify proteins based on their functions with suitable examples.
  • An 81-year-old woman presented with fatigue and was found to have anemia. In fact, she had some pancytopenia. She had low neutrophils, she had low platelets, she had some anemia, and then she was found to have a monoclonal protein. On x-rays, she was found to have bone lesions and advanced bone disease, and she was found to have an elevation in her creatinine with a lower creatinine clearance. Based on the clinical and laboratory evaluation it was diagnosed as paraproteinemia.
    Explain the biochemical evaluation of this case with their clinical interpretation. List the various immunoglobulins and their functions.
  • A 10 day old neonate was brought to hospital with complaints of feeding intolerance, emesis, strong body odour and convulsions. Laboratory tests revealed elevated serum ammonia and citrulline with no acidosis. Based on the presentation and laboratory evaluation doctor advised arginine for treatment following which the baby’s condition improved.
    Mention the diagnosis with the defective enzyme.
    Explain the biochemical basis for the treatment given.
    Write the steps of the pathway implicated. (1+1+3)
  • Mention four specialized compounds formed from glycine and their significance. (1+4)
  • Explain the Watson crick model of DNA with a neat labelled diagram.
  • Enumerate the steps of purine nucleotide degradation.
  • Explain the sources of various atoms of purine and pyrimidine rings with illustrations.
  • List the various DNA repair mechanisms and explain any two. (1+2+2)
  • Define translation. Explain the post translational modifications. (1+4)
  • Classify tumor markers with examples and their clinical significance.

Short Answers (10 x 3 = 30 marks)

  • Write the steps of southern blot technique.
  • Mention six applications of Recombinant DNA technology in medicine.
  • Define transamination reactions with suitable examples and write its significance.
  • What is point mutation? Give an example of missense mutation and its consequences.
  • Write the mechanism of action of Reverse transcriptase and state its significance.
  • Enumerate the Tubular function tests of the kidney and explain the dilution test.
  • Describe the Lac operon concept.
  • Enumerate the steps of lipid peroxidation
  • Mention any three Antioxidant enzymes and write their significance.
  • Mention any three biologically important peptides and write their functions.

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Good luck Medicoholics! Until next time.

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