Here is a list of important Pathology questions for second-year MBBS students. Students can make use of this question bank for the preparation of the subject. For your convenience, the questions have been arranged in a chapter-wise format.
As you complete each chapter in Pathology, refer to the following list of important questions. You can bookmark this page for a quicker revisit.
There are dozens of Pathology Textbooks out there, making it difficult for medical students to decide which ones to purchase. To make it easier for you, I’ve handpicked BEST and MOST RECOMMENDED textbooks:
Also, check out my complete list of NMC recommended books for MBBS 2nd year.
The questions have been arranged according to the following chapters:
- Cell Injury and Adaptation
- Inflammation and Healing
- Infections and Infestations
- Hemodynamic Disorders, Thromboembolism and Shock
- Immunopathology, AIDS and Amyloidosis
- Genetic and Pediatric Diseases
- Environmental and Nutritional Diseases
- Basic Diagnostic Cytology
- Introduction to Hematology and Disorders of Red Blood Cell
- Disorders of White Blood Cells, Lymph Node and Spleen
- Disorders of Hemostasis
- Clinical Pathology
- Blood Banking and Transfusion
- Cardiovascular Disorders
- Respiratory System
- Disorders of Oral Cavities and Gastrointestinal Tract
- Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Disorders
- Kidney and Urinary Tract Disorders
- Male Genital Tract Disorders
- Female Gential Tract Disorders
- Breast Disorders
- Endocrine Disorders
- Bones, Joints and Soft Tissue Tumours
- Skin Disorders
- Disorders of Central Nervous System and Eye
A star ★ indicates that the question is extremely important, so these should be the first ones to concentrate on.
Pathology Important Questions
Cell Injury and Adaptation
- Define necrosis. Mention the types, and explain the causes and pathology of each type of necrosis.
- Steatosis (fatty change).
- Fatty liver.
- Exogenous and endogenous pigments.
- Necrosis – definition, types with examples. ★
- Apoptosis – definition and mechanism. ★
- Difference between necrosis and apoptosis.
- Gangrene and its types. ★
- Difference between dry and wet gangrene.
- Pathological calcification. ★
- Dystrophic calcification.
- Metastatic calcification.
- Metaplasia with examples. ★
- Hyaline change.
- Psamoma bodies.
Inflammation and Healing
- Inflammation – definition and types. Describe the causes and vascular and cellular events in acute inflammation. ★
- Compare with the help of suitable diagrams wound healing by primary and secondary intention. Discuss the factors promoting and delaying the process.
- Vascular changes in acute inflammation.
- Difference between transudate and exudate.
- Chemotaxis. ★
- Phagocytosis. ★
- Chemical mediators of inflammation. ★
- Role of arachidonic acid metabolites in acute inflammation.
- Role of complements in inflammation.
- Granulomatous lymphadenitis.
- Angiogenesis (neovascularization) in repair.
- Factors influencing wound healing. ★
- Complications of wound healing. ★
- Granulation tissue.
Infections and Infestations
- Define and classify leprosy. Describe the pathogenesis and pathology.
- Morphology of tuberculoid leprosy.
- Morphology of lepromatous leprosy. ★
- Difference between tuberculoid and lepromatous leprosy.
- Congenital syphilis.
Hemodynamic Disorders, Thromboembolism and Shock
- Etiopathogenesis of endotoxic (septic) shock. ★
- Define and describe the pathogenesis of thrombus. Add a note on fate of the thrombus. ★
- Discuss the causes and pathogenesis of generalized edema.
- What is embolism? Mention different types of embolism with examples. ★
- Chronic venous congestion of the lung.
- Chronic venous congestion of the liver.
- Air embolism.
- Define infarction. What are the different types of infarcts with common sites of occurrence? ★
Immunopathology, AIDS and Amyloidosis
- Opportunistic infections in AIDS. ★
- Type I hypersensitivity reaction. ★
- Type II hypersensitivity reaction.
- Type III hypersensitivity reaction. ★
- Type IV hypersensitivity (delayed type of hypersensitivity).
- Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
- Lupus erythematosus (LE) cell and its associated conditions.
- Graft versus host disease (GVHD).
- Staining characteristics of amyloid and its appearances.
- Special stains to confirm amyloid. ★
- Define metastasis and describe its mechanism. ★
- Differences between benign and malignant neoplasms. ★
- Routes of the spread of malignant tumours with examples. ★
- Role of tumour suppressor genes in oncogenesis.
- TP53 gene. ★
- Chemical carcinogenesis. ★
- Chemical carcinogens.
- Paraneoplastic syndrome.
- Tumour markers. ★
- Oncogenic viruses.
Genetic and Pediatric Diseases
- Barr body (sex chromatin).
- Down syndrome. ★
- Klinefelter’s syndrome. ★
- Turner’s syndrome. ★
- Laboratory diagnosis of genetic diseases.
- Gaucher disease.
Environmental and Nutritional Diseases
- Enumerate the cancers associated with chronic smoking. ★
- Enumerate the cancers associated with chronic alcoholism. ★
- Vitamin A deficiency. ★
- Scurvy. ★
Basic Diagnostic Cytology
- Exfoliative cytology. ★
- Papanicolaou (Pap) smear – indications and importance.
- Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC).
Introduction to Hematology and Disorders of Red Blood Cell
- Describe the etiology, clinical features and laboratory diagnosis of Iron deficiency anaemia. ★
- Hemolytic anaemia. ★
- RBC indices.
- Define and classify anaemia.
- Microcytic hypochromic anaemia.
- Megaloblastic anaemia. ★
- Aplastic anaemia.
- Diagnosis of sickle cell anaemia. ★
- Sickling test.
- Pernicious anaemia.
- Significance of reticulocytosis.
- Coomb’s test.
Disorders of White Blood Cells, Lymph Node and Spleen
- Define and classify leukaemias. Discuss peripheral blood smear findings and bone marrow findings associated with acute myeloid leukaemia. ★
- Define and classify leukaemias. Discuss peripheral blood smear findings and bone marrow findings associated with chronic myeloid leukaemia. ★
- Tabulate the differences between myeloblast and lymphoblast.
- Leukemoid reaction. ★
- Agranulocytosis. ★
- Difference between leukaemia and leukemoid reaction.
- Causes of eosinophilia. ★
- Causes of monocytosis. ★
- Philadelphia chromosome.
- Blood picture in chronic myeloid leukaemia.
- Blood picture in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
- Laboratory findings in multiple myeloma. ★
- Bence Jones proteins and their demonstration.
- Burkitt’s lymphoma. ★
- Classification of Hodgkin’s disease (Hodgkin’s lymphoma). ★
- Causes of splenomegaly.
- Types of Reed-Sternberg cells.
- Functional defect in neutrophils.
Disorders of Hemostasis
- List the causes of thrombocytopenia. Discuss idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. ★
- Hemophilia A. ★
- Von Willebrand’s disease – clinical feature and laboratory diagnosis. ★
- Disseminated intravascular coagulation (aetiology and pathogenesis).
- Types of anticoagulants used in hematology.
- Indications and contraindications of bone marrow aspiration. ★
- Microscopic examination of urine.
- CSF findings in various types of meningitis.
- What are Romanowsky stains? Give examples.
- Packed cell volume (hematocrit) – define and its significance.
- What is buffy coat? Mention its importance.
- Wintrobe’s tube and its function.
- Osmotic fragility test.
- Benedict’s test.
- Causes of dry tap of dry tip in bone marrow aspiration.
- Urine examination – sample collection and preservatives.
- Sulfosalicylic acid test.
- Hay’s sulfur test.
- Indications of lumbar puncture.
Blood Banking and Transfusion
- Methods of blood grouping.
- Bombay blood group.
- Blood donor selection criteria. ★
- Name the available blood components.
- Infections transmitted by blood transfusion. ★
- Blood transfusion reactions. ★
- Define atherosclerosis. Discuss the risk factors, etiopathogenesis and pathology of atherosclerosis. Also briefly write about the sites and clinical significance of atherosclerosis. Describe the morphology (along with a neat and labelled diagram) of an atherosclerotic plaque. Mention the complications of atherosclerosis. ★
- Classify myocardial infarction. Describe the etiopathogenesis, morphology/sequential changes seen over time. Add a note on laboratory diagnosis. ★
- Causes, types and complications of aneurysms.
- Laboratory diagnosis of myocardial infarction.
- Describe various types of cardiac vegetations in endocarditis.
- Infective endocarditis.
- Rheumatic heart disease. ★
- Libman Sacks endocarditis.
- Patent ductus arteriosus.
- Fallot’s tetralogy – components and complications.
- Coarctation of the aorta.
- What is emphysema? Write the types of emphysema. Describe the pathogenesis of emphysema. ★
- Types of emphysema. ★
- Bronchial asthma.
- Bronchiectasis. ★
- Lobar pneumonia.
- Lung abscess.
- Primary tuberculosis.
- Ghon lesion. ★
- Asbestosis. ★
- Classify lung tumours. Discuss the pathogenesis, morphology and clinical features including paraneoplastic syndromes of squamous cell carcinoma lung.
- Small cell carcinoma of the lung.
Disorders of Oral Cavities and Gastrointestinal Tract
- Leukoplakia – definition and morphology. ★
- Pleomorphic adenoma.
- Warthin’s tumour – microscopy. ★
- Barrett’s esophagus. ★
- Etiopathogenesis of peptic ulcer. ★
- Role of Helicobacter pylori in gastric ulcer. ★
- Gastric carcinoma. ★
- Carcinoid tumour.
- Carcinoid syndrome.
- Tabulate the differences between Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. ★
- Hirschsprung disease.
- Etiopathogenesis of colonic carcinoma.
- Meckel’s diverticulum.
Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Disorders
- Laboratory investigations in jaundice. ★
- Squeal of hepatitis B infection.
- Alcoholic liver disease – etiopathogenesis and pathology. ★
- Cirrhosis. ★
- Portal hypertension.
- Amebic liver abscess – morphology. ★
- Hepatocellular carcinoma.
- Gallstones (cholelithiasis) – etiopathogenesis and complications. ★
- Acute pancreatitis – etiopathogenesis, morphology and complications. ★
- Chronic pancreatitis.
Kidney and Urinary Tract Disorders
- Describe the etiopathogenesis of acute diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis or post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis.
- Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis.
- Nephrotic syndrome.
- Minimal lesion glomerulonephritis/or minimal change disease.
- Difference between nephrotic syndrome and nephritic syndrome. ★
- Renal changes in diabetes mellitus (diabetic nephropathy). ★
- Chronic pyelonephritis.
- Kidney changes in malignant hypertension.
- Horseshoe kidney.
- Cystic disease of the kidney.
- Polycystic kidney disease.
- Hydronephrosis. ★
- Enumerate types of renal stones. ★
- Morphology of renal cell carcinoma. ★
- Flea-bitten kidney.
- Morphology of Wilm’s tumour.
Male Genital Tract Disorders
- Premalignant lesions of the penis.
- Benign hyperplasia of the prostate. ★
- Classify testicular tumours. Describe the etiology and morphology of seminoma. ★
Female Gential Tract Disorders
- Classify ovarian tumours. Describe the morphological features of serous tumours of ovary. ★
- Classify ovarian tumours. Describe the morphological features of mucinous tumours of ovary.
- Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). ★
- Leiomyoma – sites and morphology. ★
- Brenner tumour of ovary.
- Ovarian germ cell tumours.
- Teratoma of ovary. ★
- Dermoid cyst.
- Granulosa cell tumour of ovary.
- Kruckenberg’s tumour – morphology. ★
- Trophoblastic tumours.
- Hydatidiform mole. ★
- Fibrocystic disease of breast or fibrocystic change.
- Classification of breast carcinoma.
- Medullary carcinoma of breast.
- Prognostic and predictive factors of carcinoma of the breast. ★
- Fibroadenoma of the breast. ★
- Phyllodes tumour – morphology. ★
- Discuss the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Mention its major long-term complications. ★
- Hashimato’s thyroiditis – etiopathogenesis and morphology. ★
- Grave’s disease – etiopathogenesis and morphology. ★
- Iodine deficiency goitre.
- Multinodular goitre. ★
- Thyroid adenoma.
- Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. ★
- Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. ★
- Pheochromocytoma. ★
- Multiple endocrine neoplasia.
- List the complications of diabetes mellitus. ★
- Type 1 diabetes mellitus.
- Renal glycosuria.
- HbA1C (glycosylated hemoglobin).
Bones, Joints and Soft Tissue Tumours
- Classify tumours of the bone. Describe the etiopathogenesis and morphology of osteogenic sarcoma/osteosarcoma. ★
- Complications of osteomyelitis.
- Tuberculous osteomyelitis.
- Paget’s disease of bone. ★
- Classify tumours of the bone. Describe the morphology of osteoclastoma (giant cell tumour of bone). ★
- Ewing’s tumour/Ewing sarcoma.★
- Rheumatoid arthritis.
- Renal osteodystrophy.
- Pott’s spine.
- Morphology of chondrosarcoma.
- Gouty tophi.
- Basal cell carcinoma of the skin (rodent ulcer) – etiopathogenesis and morphology. ★
- Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin – etiopathogenesis and morphology. ★
- Malignant melanoma – etiopathogenesis and morphology. ★
- Molluscum contagiosum.
Disorders of Central Nervous System and Eye
- Subarachnoid hemorrhage.
- Pyogenic meningitis. ★
- Meningioma. ★
- TB meningitis.
- Brain abscess.